Prior to fifteen years ago, astronomers never thought that the early Universe would have had massive galaxies. It had been conventionally regarded as a hotbed of star and galaxy formation, with the earliest galaxies relatively smaller than those that formed later. However, some began to theorize that galactic maturation may not occur at the same rate, and some might have gone through the process much faster. Karl Glazebrook, a co-author on the new paper, published results in 2004 of evidence of massive galaxies when the Universe was about 3 billion years old. This new study found evidence of massive galaxies that were mature in half of that time.
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