Ironically, while cosmologists will propose the possible existence of completely dark galaxies  when bridge like filaments are present but no companion is evident, the bridges are immediately dismissed as evidence for interaction if there is a
significant difference in redshift between the two apparently connected objects. For example Borchkhadze et al  presented
a study of 16 interacting galaxy systems and noted for ESO 234-19 that “The reproduction (figure 1i) shows a diffuse object between them. However, the radial velocities differ with about 2200 km s-1 so that a connection is probably excluded.” It should be noted in both the NGC 7603 and NEQ3 case that if the companion galaxy is removed as a candidate, then there is no candidate to explain the formation of the bridge unless a hypothesis such as that of  is adopted.
Moreover, the velocity dispersion in the relevant part of the cluster is so high that this velocity difference is not unusual.
"If I could have my pick, I would like to learn that Newton's laws must be modified in order to correctly describe gravitational interactions at large distances. That's more appealing than a universe filled with a new kind of sub-nuclear particle."
What do you think of the ATM case for NGC 1275?
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