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Previous Next Up Topic Cosmology / Alternative Cosmology / The Universe appears to contract (3490 hits)
By hartmut Date 2013-10-05 17:39
From Magnitudes and Redshifts of Supernovae, their Light-Curves, and Angular Sizes of Galaxies to a Tenable Cosmology

Abstract: Early physical cosmologies were based on interpretations of the cosmological redshift for which there was insufficient evidence and on theories of gravitation that appear to be falsified by galactic dynamics. Eventually, the big bang paradigm came to be guarded against refutation by ad hoc hypotheses (dark matter, cosmic inflation, dark energy) and free parameters. Presently available data allow a more satisfactory phenomenological approach. Using data on magnitude and redshift from 892 type Ia supernovae, it is first shown that these suggest that the redshift factor (1 + z) is simply an exponential function of distance and that magnitude m = 5 log[(1 + z) ln(1 + z)] + const. While these functions are incompatible with a big bang, they characterize certain tired light cosmologies as well as exponential expansion cosmologies. However, the former are falsified by the stretched light curves of distant supernovae and the latter by the absence of a predicted 1+z increase in the angular sizes of galaxies, which is also problematic in concordance cosmology. Instead, the observations suggest that the Universe and all physical objects contract uniformly as an exponential function of time, only free waves being excepted. Distant events proceed, then, more slowly, while angular sizes remain unaffected, approximately as observed. Due to the universality of the contraction, the Universe remains static in the view of observers. A corresponding theory, which should also explain galactic dynamics, remains yet to be derived from first principles. A way to do this, satisfying also Mach’s principle, is suggested.

Paper: http://www2.ling.su.se/staff/hartmut/contraction_cosmology.pdf
By Jade Annand Date 2013-10-08 06:08
Hi, hartmut :)

I'm going to read this paper in a little more detail, since I am enjoying a quick skim of it.

Favourite quote so far:

The paper said:

They say that “This is in accord with the theoretical expectation that the typical sizes of the luminous parts of galaxies should track the expected evolution in the virial radius of dark matter halos.” However, this is a reasoning about a fudge factor.


:)
By bangstrom Date 2013-11-01 10:10
Instead, the observations suggest that the Universe and all physical objects contract uniformly as an exponential function of time, only free waves being excepted. Distant events proceed, then, more slowly, while angular sizes remain unaffected, approximately as observed. Due to the universality of the contraction, the Universe remains static in the view of observers.


I can understand the idea of a Universe in which all physical objects contract uniformly with time. Arthur Eddington was possibly to first to suggest this as an alternative to expansion theory where material contraction in a non-expanding universe creates the illusion of expanding space relative to the shrinking scale of observers. Russell Reierson coined the term “inverse expansion” to describe this phenomenon. But I don’t understand the model of a Universe where both the Universe and physical objects contract uniformly. As you said, such a Universe would appear static to observers. What physical condition could prevent free waves from contracting along with everything else and wouldn’t distant galaxies appear blueshifted? And wouldn’t angular sizes appear larger since we observe back to a time to when sizes really were larger?
By hartmut Date 2013-12-28 19:47
Hi, bangstrom :)

Sorry for the late reply; this discussion had fallen out of my mind. Your last question was:
And wouldn’t angular sizes appear larger since we observe back to a time to when sizes really were larger?
The size of any distant object was larger, but its distance from us was also proportionally larger. Therefore, the angular sizes apper to be unaffected.
wouldn’t distant galaxies appear blueshifted?
They would appear blueshifted (a Doppler effect) if the standard of comparison did not contract in proportion.
What physical condition could prevent free waves from contracting along with everything else
This is an important question, but I cannot really offer a satisfactory answer to it. This is so since my approach up to the conclusion that light waves do not contract was purely phenomenological. This just emerges as the simplest description of the evidence. I think that a contraction requires a two-way interaction and that free waves propagating at c escape from this. This would no longer be the case for standing waves, which should contract like physical objects, by a fraction of approximately 6.4 10−11 per year.
Arthur Eddington was possibly to first to suggest this as an alternative to expansion theory where material contraction in a non-expanding universe creates the illusion of expanding space relative to the shrinking scale of observers. Russell Reierson coined the term “inverse expansion” to describe this phenomenon.
I am aware that the idea of a universal contraction is not new, and I would not be surprised if Eddington had mentioned it, but I failed to find the relevant literature. I have now revised my paper, and it has been accepted for publication in Astrophysics and Space Science.
By hartmut Date 2013-12-31 17:56
Meanwhile, I have found a relevant passage in the book by Eddington A S, The Expanding Universe, (1987 reprint of 1933 edition), on p.89-90:
All change is relative. The universe is expanding relatively to our common material  standards; our material standards are shrinking relatively to the size of the universe. The theory of the "expanding universe" might also be called the theory of the "shrinking atom".

However, this was perhaps just a side remark to which the author did not return in the remainder of the book, perhaps because he thought that these alternatives are fully equivalent.
As for angular sizes, they are not equivalent! /hartmut
Previous Next Up Topic Cosmology / Alternative Cosmology / The Universe appears to contract (3490 hits)

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